Fidelity Bank Plc (FIDELI.ng) HY2010 Interim Report

first_imgFidelity Bank Plc (FIDELI.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2010 interim results for the half year.For more information about Fidelity Bank Plc (FIDELI.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Fidelity Bank Plc (FIDELI.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Fidelity Bank Plc (FIDELI.ng)  2010 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileFidelity Bank Plc is a financial services institution in Nigeria offering banking products and services for the individual, commercial and corporate sectors. Its extensive full-service personal and business offering ranges from transactional accounts, online banking, loans and term deposits to money market, treasury services loans and advances, commercial support overdrafts, equipment leasing finance and trade, working capital, project, asset and syndicate finance. Fidelity Bank Plc operates through 225 business offices, 730 ATMs and 3 853 point-of-sale channels. Founded in 18=987 and formerly known as Fidelity Union Merchant Bank, the company changed its name to Fidelity Bank Plc in 1999. Its head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Fidelity Bank Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchangelast_img read more

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International Breweries Plc (INTBRE.ng) 2014 Abridged Report

first_imgInternational Breweries Plc (INTBRE.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Beverages sector has released it’s 2014 abridged results.For more information about International Breweries Plc (INTBRE.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the International Breweries Plc (INTBRE.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: International Breweries Plc (INTBRE.ng)  2014 abridged results.Company ProfileInternational Breweries Plc is a brewery in Nigeria which brews, packages and markets a range of beer and non-alcoholic malt beverages. The company is known for its beer sold under the Trophy brand name and non-alcoholic malt drink sold under the Betamalt brand name, namely Trophy Lager, Trophy Black and Betamalt malt drink. Other brands packaged and marketed by International Breweries Plc include Castle Milk Stout, Castle Lager, Redds, Hero, Grand Malt and Voltic Water. The company’s head office is in Osun State, Nigeria and its distribution centres are in Ibadan, Lagos and Ilorin. International Breweries Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchangelast_img read more

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New Arts Council funds to increase sector resilience & access for older people

first_imgNew Arts Council funds to increase sector resilience & access for older people AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis13 The Arts Council has announced the launch of three new funds that will focus on improving resilience and sustainability across the sector, and access to arts and culture for older people. The new funds are already seeking applications, while also opening are new rounds of the Council’s Capital: Large Grants and Cultural Destinations funding.The new funds are as follows:Celebrating Age: Supporting organisations to become open, positive and welcoming places for older people. As well as taking arts and culture into places where older people will find it easier to engage.Business Support: Increasing knowledge and understanding of business support within the cultural creative sector.Building Resilience: Supporting up to four external organisations or consultancies who will work on different approaches to improve resilience and long term sustainability across the sector.Returning funds:Capital: Large Grants: Investing in the right buildings and equipment for organisations to deliver their work and become more sustainable and innovative businesses.Cultural Destinations: Funding partnerships between arts and cultural organisations and the tourism sector to drive growth in the visitor economy.A podcast is available on the Arts Council site, explaining the changes the Arts Council is making to its investment process from 2018.  75 total views,  1 views today  76 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis13 Melanie May | 18 July 2016 | Newscenter_img Tagged with: Arts Council England Funding Advertisement About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com.last_img read more

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Indiana Soy Checkoff Awards Purdue Student Innovators

first_img Indiana Soy Checkoff Awards Purdue Student Innovators STAY CONNECTED5,545FansLike3,961FollowersFollow187SubscribersSubscribe How Indiana Crops are Faring Versus Other States All quotes are delayed snapshots Previous articleLegislation to Fight Opioid-Related Infectious Diseases Introduced by Sen. Todd YoungNext articleNew Animal Sciences Complex Opens at Purdue Andy Eubank RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Facebook Twitter SHARE Name Sym Last Change Lean Hogs HEM21 (JUN 21) 122.68 0.22 Soybean ZSN21 (JUL 21) 1508.50 -35.50 Battle Resistance With the Soy Checkoff ‘Take Action’ Program Wheat ZWN21 (JUL 21) 680.75 -3.00 2018-Soy-Innovation-AwardsThis week the Indiana Soybean Alliance awarded over $35,000 to Purdue students participating in the 2018 Student Soybean Innovation Competition. A team that developed a soy-based tackifier for hydroseeding solutions, team SoyTack won the $20,000 top prize Wednesday night in Indianapolis. Vice-chair of ISA Joe Tulholski from LaPorte County said Indiana farmers should know that the annual contest funded with checkoff dollars helps bring new products to market.“What better way to take some of the demand pressure away than by letting a student competition come up with all the different types of ideas that nobody’s ever thought of before on using soybeans or soybean products,” he told HAT. “It’s really a way for us to look for a potential way to gain a new market.”Jacob Semonis from Warsaw and a member of the winning team, explains the benefits of hydroseeding with soy.“We believe by utilizing soy protein we have created a superior product for the hydroseeding market,” he said. “We’ve seen that products that usually have a dry time or cure time of around 15 hours, our product does so in about 6-7 hours. So, that saves a lot of time for potential contractors that are trying to do jobs. Our product also has an erosion control rate or percentage of 90.3% to 99.1% vs. other products which range from 80-85% control.”Other members of the team are Terence Babb, a multidisciplinary engineering major from Lafayette, Susan Hubbard, a biological engineering major from West Lafayette, and Christopher Stichter, an agricultural systems management major from Leesburg, Ind. Semonis is a double major in agricultural economics and agronomy.Second place and a $10,000 check went to I Am BOBA for their product which uses soy pearls for bubble tea. Caleb Kreis from Crown Point, Indiana explains.“If you’re familiar with bubble tea, it’s kind of a trendy, millennial product, and as you’re drinking the tea you’re sucking up what is traditionally cassava starch pearls. It’s kind of a mouth feel, oral sensation that keeps you drinking and is enjoyable to chew on. Cassava has very little nutritional value and it’s also all sourced from overseas. Having a starch-based pearl we have much higher nutritional content. It would utilize upwards of 270,000 pounds of soy flour a month creating our products with our factory that we hypothesized.”Third place and $5,000 was awarded to Soy Soft and their charcoal face mask infused with beta-carotene. People’s Choice award winning team Soy Safe Solution received $500 for their protective food spray made from soy. See an overview and of these and other products in the HAT YouTube video. Minor Changes in June WASDE Report SHARE By Andy Eubank – Mar 23, 2018 Home Indiana Agriculture News Indiana Soy Checkoff Awards Purdue Student Innovators Facebook Twitter Feeder Cattle GFQ21 (AUG 21) 151.18 2.78 Corn ZCN21 (JUL 21) 684.50 -14.50 Live Cattle LEM21 (JUN 21) 118.70 1.13 last_img read more

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Wide receiver Josh Doctson done for regular season

first_imgprintThe Horned Frogs will be without top wide receiver Josh Doctson for the remainder of the regular season.TCU head coach Gary Patterson announced after practice Wednesday that Doctson will not play against Oklahoma or Baylor. Doctson suffered a wrist injury in the first half of the contest against Oklahoma State on Nov. 7 and did not return.Doctson did return to action against Kansas on Nov. 14, but only made one reception for 12 yards.Patterson had announced Tuesday that Doctson was questionable and would see a specialist for his wrist.Doctson led the Frogs this season with 14 touchdown catches and 79 total receptions for 1327 receiving yards. Doctson also became only the second player in the last 20 years to have six straight games with 100 receiving yards and multiple touchdown catches, joining former Texas Tech receiver Michael Crabtree.Patterson said Doctson may be able to return for a bowl game.Docston is not the only key player for the Frogs who is injured at the moment. Starting quarterback and Heisman Trophy candidate Trevone Boykin left the game against Kansas and is questionable for Saturday’s contest against the Sooners.TCU could potentially be without both ends of one of the best quarterback-receiver duos in the nation as they head to Norman this weekend. Kickoff is set for 7 p.m. The game will be televised on ABC. Dean Strakahttps://www.tcu360.com/author/dean-straka/ Facebook Dean Strakahttps://www.tcu360.com/author/dean-straka/ Linkedin Dean Straka is a senior journalism major from Lake Forest, California. He currently serves as Sports Line Editor for TCU 360. His passions include golf, God, traveling, and sitting down to watch the big game of the day. Follow him on Twitter at @dwstraka49 Dean Straka Another series win lands TCU Baseball in the top 5, earns Sikes conference award Facebook Dean Strakahttps://www.tcu360.com/author/dean-straka/ ReddIt Linkedin Twitter Josh Doctson warms-up before the game against West Virginia on Oct. 29, 2015 in Fort Worth, TX Equestrian upsets No. 1 Baylor, swept by Texas A&M at NCEA Championships + posts TCU rowing program strengthens after facing COVID-19 setbacks Previous articleAnnual parade set to light up downtown Fort WorthNext articleArrieta, former TCU pitcher, wins NL Cy Young award Dean Straka RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Twitter Men’s tennis clinches consecutive Big 12 titles with win over No. 4 Baylor ReddIt Equestrian defeated in Big 12 Championship Norrie climbs to No. 1 in national rankings Dean Strakahttps://www.tcu360.com/author/dean-straka/ TCU baseball finds their biggest fan just by saying hellolast_img read more

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Media freedom is essential for peace process

first_img Organisation April 23, 2013 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Media freedom is essential for peace process News Human rights groups warns European leaders before Turkey summit April 28, 2021 Find out more Reporters Without Borders representatives yesterday attended hearings in two trials in Silivri, 60 km northwest of Istanbul, that have major implications for freedom of information in Turkey.One is the trial of Kurdish journalists who are accused of being members of an alleged “media committee” created by the outlawed Union of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK). The other is a trial of alleged members of the Ergenekon ultranationalist conspiracy.“We are here to yet again demonstrate our support for those who have been jailed because of their work as journalists and to point out that Turkey currently holds the world record in this category,” Reporters Without Borders said. “The Kurdish journalists on trial have been in preventive detention for more than 15 months. In the Ergenekon trial, the journalists Mustafa Balbay and Tuncay Özkan have been in preventive detention for five years. It is unacceptable that the authorities continue to extend their detention.“At a time of historic peace talks between the government and PKK armed separatists, freedom of information is part of the solution. The reforms begun by the authorities must be carried through to the end, until all repressive provisions have been purged from Turkey’s legislation and journalists no longer fear being jailed for doing their work.”Johann Bihr, the head of RWB’s Europe and Central Asia desk, and Erol Önderoglu, RWB’s representative in Turkey, held a joint news conference yesterday outside the law courts in Silivri together with representatives of the Freedom for Journalists Platform (GÖP) – Ercan Ipekçi, president of the Journalists’ Syndicate (TGS), Recep Yasar, a member of the board of the Turkish Journalists’ Association (TGC) and Kaan Karlioglu, secretary general of the Press Council.A delegation of Belgian parliamentarians, consisting of Jean-Claude Defossé (ECOLO), André du Bus de Warnaffe (CDH) and Fatoumata Sibidé (FDF), and the German trade unionist Joachim Legatis (DJU) condemned the defendants’ continuing detention and called on the international community to put pressure on the Turkish authorities.Sebahat Tuncel, a Kurdish member of the Turkish parliament who is member of the BDP party, the painter Bedri Baykam and the well-known lawyer Turgut Kazan also attended yesterday’s hearings.At the hearing in the “KCK media committee” trial, the 12th hearing, the summary of a new indictment was read out. It concerned media assistants Ismet Kayhan and Mikail Barutçu, who are accused of being KCK leaders, and brought the number of defendants to 46, of whom 26 are currently in preventive detention.For the first time, the defendants were allowed to speak Kurdish in court, to confirm their identity or to defend themselves. “We do not regard ourselves as being on trial,” Ertus Bozkurt said on behalf of all the defendants. “This case has been concocted by the government, media and prosecutors.”The justice ministry rejected a request by the lawyer Sinan Zincir for the journalists being held in Kandira prison in Izmit (100 km southeast of Istanbul) to be transferred to the prison in Silivri, where the trial is being held.A university representative told the court that the defendant Ismail Yildiz was sitting an exam in Malatya in 2001 at the moment when he was supposed to have been visiting a PKK camp in Qandil (in northern Iraq). The hearing is to continue until 26 April, when the court will rule on release requests.The observers hope that the detained journalists will be released, as such a gesture would be consistent with the negotiations currently taking place between the government and PKK. More than 30,000 Turkish army soldiers, PKK members and civilian have died in the course of the conflict, which began in 1984.In the other hearing attended by RWB, journalists Mustafa Balbay and Tuncay Özkan are among a large group of defendants accused of being members of Ergenekon, a secularist and ultra-nationalist network that allegedly conspired against the Justice and Development Party government.The trial is now at the stage of speeches for the defence. Defence lawyers recently staged a walkout in protest against the limit imposed by the court on the length of their addresses. The court reacted by filing a complaint against the defence lawyers.Photo : Ozan Koze / AFP TurkeyEurope – Central Asia News Turkey’s never-ending judicial persecution of former newspaper editor TurkeyEurope – Central Asia April 2, 2021 Find out morecenter_img Help by sharing this information Follow the news on Turkey News News April 2, 2021 Find out more to go further Receive email alerts RSF_en Journalists threatened with imprisonment under Turkey’s terrorism lawlast_img read more

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Joy at U Win Tin’s release after 19 years in prison

first_img May 26, 2021 Find out more September 23, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Joy at U Win Tin’s release after 19 years in prison MyanmarAsia – Pacific RSF asks Germany to let Myanmar journalist Mratt Kyaw Thu apply for asylum RSF_en News Reporters Without Borders and the Burma Media Association are overjoyed by today’s release of leading Burmese journalist U Win Tin after 19 years in detention. He emerged from Insein prison still dressed in prisoner clothes after benefiting from an amnesty announced by the military government for thousands of detainees ahead of elections promised for 2010.“We worked together to defend U Win Tin’s innocence and we are immensely relieved that he has finally been freed,” the two organisations said. “It is unacceptable that he was made to serve 19 years in prison for peacefully advocating democracy but today his release is an historic moment. We hope other journalists and prisoners of conscience will also be freed and that U Win Tin will be able to resume his peaceful struggle for press freedom and democracy in Burma.”Shortly after his release at 4 p.m., U Win Tin spoke to journalists at his home. “I am going to continue practising politics because I am a political man,” he said. “I did not sign document 401, which would have forced me to give up that role. Starting today, I am going to continue supporting Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. I will soon be 80, but I am not going to stop.” Follow the news on Myanmar News MyanmarAsia – Pacific to go further May 31, 2021 Find out more Help by sharing this information News On 23 september, U Win Tin emerged from Insein prison still dressed in prisoner clothes after benefiting from an amnesty announced by the military government. “It is unacceptable that he was made to serve 19 years in prison for peacefully advocating democracy but today his release is an historic moment. We hope other journalists and prisoners of conscience will also be freed”, said Reporters Without Borders and the Burma Media Association. Referring to the announcement of his release, U Win Tin said: “I learned of it this morning from an official, but I did not trust it. The last time they made the same promise, I was not released. That is why I refused to take off my prisoner clothes.”The government’s New Light of Myanmar daily newspaper announced today that 9,002 prisoners are to be released in order to allow them to take part in the elections promised for 2010. A small number of political prisoners have benefited from this amnesty, which comes a year after the military junta’s ruthless crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrations.Arrested on 4 July 1989, U Win Tin was sentenced to a total of 20 years in prison on various charges including anti-government propaganda. He had been the editor of the daily Hanthawaddy and vice-president of the Burma Writers Association as well as Aung San Suu Kyi’s political mentor.He was mistreated on various occasions during his two decades in prison. One of these was in 1996, after the authorities discovered he had provided the United Nations with information about prison conditions. But the fact that he is well known internationally resulted in his being given a special cell and access to hospital treatment.Aung San Suu Kyi said this about U Win Tin: “It was natural that those who believed in intellectual freedom and justice were the first to get involved in the 1988 democracy movement. From the outset, Win Tin played an active role in the Union of Writers that emerged during the movement’s first weeks. His undeniable skills and the strength of his convictions made him a priority target for those opposing the democratic cause.”Eight journalists are still in prison in Burma. They include Zaw Thet Htwe, who is currently being tried inside Insein prison. Receive email alerts Organisation Latest video of U Win Tin at his house after his release (source : DVB) : http://dvb.cachefly.net/Released%20U%20Win%20Tin.wmv May 12, 2021 Find out more News Thai premier, UN rapporteurs asked to prevent journalists being returned to Myanmar US journalist held in Yangon prison notorious for torturelast_img read more

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Ameron Center in Pasadena Sold to Entity with Ties to Local Developer

first_img Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Make a comment More Cool Stuff Community News Subscribe Business News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  HerbeautyWeird Types Of Massage Not Everyone Dares To TryHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Things You’ve Always Wanted To Know About RihannaHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyDo You Feel Like Hollywood Celebrities All Look A Bit Similar?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyInstall These Measures To Keep Your Household Safe From Covid19HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty15 Countries Where Men Have Difficulties Finding A WifeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyYou Can’t Go Past Our Healthy Quick RecipesHerbeautyHerbeauty Community News Top of the News center_img Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Commercial Real Estate News Ameron Center in Pasadena Sold to Entity with Ties to Local Developer From STAFF REPORTS Published on Tuesday, August 16, 2016 | 12:05 pm A developer with Pasadena and local area projects to his name is affiliated with an entity that just purchased Pasadena’s Ameron Center.Real estate magazine The Real Deal said Patrick Chraghchian, president of American General Contractors (AGC), is connected to the entity that bought the 175,800-square-foot Class A office complex for $40.5 million from international real estate investment and services firm Kennedy Wilson, which acquired the property for $39 million in 2014.The Ameron Center, located near the mixed-use Paseo Colorado outdoor lifestyle center as well as Old Town Pasadena and the Lake Avenue Business and Shopping District, is only 25 percent leased, according to The Real Deal report. Several law firms are among the tenants.In Pasadena, Chragchian’s AGC also developed the Burton, a 34-unit condo development on South Los Robles Avenue.AGC also acquired the Thatcher Medical Building at 960 E. Green Street last year.The Real Deal said Chragchian’s plans call for him to build a 55-unit apartment project in Glendale, replacing a former Bob’s Big Boy restaurant at 1407 W. Glenoaks Boulevard. First Heatwave Expected Next Week 6 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

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‘An appalling case of deception’

first_imgNewsLocal News‘An appalling case of deception’By admin – October 6, 2010 823 He added that the accused remained in contact with Ms Gribbins after he left his employment.According to Det Garda Ryan, Harrington “told her that he planned to set up a company called Shannon Medical and that he had been refused a bank loan”.Harrington was aware that the woman had received a settlement from the Residential Institutions Redress Board.Ms Gribbins offered to give him the money after hearing his “merry tale”.Harrington agreed to pay back the money in instalments, including 10 per cent interest.But it was after the final two payments of €5,000 and €1,200 made over the 18 month period to Harrington, that suspicions were raised as Ms Gribbins’ direct debit payments to the nursing home were not honoured.Harrington sent text messages to Ms Gribbins asking for the money following an alleged meeting with his accountant in order to secure 17 new contracts for the business. Promises that the full €60,000 would be returned as the company was in profit, were made.The court heard that there was no accountant and no contracts on offer to the company, and that it was effectively “null and void”.Ms Gribbins, desperate to get her money back, said that she felt this was her last chance and therefore agreed to the payments.The former care assistant took the payments from Ms Gribbins and said they were for customs and excise duty and had originally sought over €7,000, but due to the financial circumstances of the woman, she was only able to withdraw €1,200 on the final occasion at her Limerick bank.Harrington, it was said, used the money to fund his lifestyle.Ms Gribbins entered the home in 2006 after her husband died, and her only daughter also passed away. Her only granddaughter lives in the UK.  A very private lady, Ms Gribbins was said to have been left penniless and almost destitute by the actions of Harrington and only became aware of the seriousness of the matter when she was asked to leave the nursing home, but Det Garda Ryan added that, “thanks to the HSE, it never came to that”.Before Judge O’Donnell addressed the court, Ms Gribbins was assisted to the witness box after she asked permission to speak in court.“My confidence is gone, I trusted Michael after I met him in the home. He was very friendly and very helpful and he told me how he wanted to set up a business after he left working there”.She added that she got suspicious, and anytime she asked to talk to Harrington, he avoided talking about the business or investment.  “I was told my direct debit was not paid, and I didn’t know why”.Jenny Fitzgibbon, solicitor for the accused, said that he sincerely apologised and that he had entered an early plea of guilty.Earning €1,000 a month, it was offered to the court that Harrington had €2,000 as an initial payment, and wanted to enter into a payment plan to recompense Ms Gribbins.However, Judge O’Donnell said that the payment plan offered was “unrealistic” and in one of the most “appalling cases of deception” he had seen, he said he would be failing his duty if a custodial sentence was not imposed.Commending the bravery and courage of the 70-year-old lady, Judge O’Donnell added that Ms Gribbins’ confidence was “shattered” and she was “financially wiped out by the behaviour of the accused”.On the two counts of obtaining €5,000 and €1,200 through deception, judge O’Donnell sentenced Harrington to eight months in Limerick prison with both to run concurrently. Email Twitter Advertisement Facebook 70-year-old lady had her confidence shatteredA 25-year-old former nursing home care assistant has been sent to prison for eight months after pleading guilty to what Judge Tom O’Donnell noted as one of the most appalling cases of deception he had seen while at the bench. His comments came as he heard evidence of how Michael Harrington of 45 Cronan Lawn, Shannon,Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up “effectively wiped” out the finances to the tune of almost €70,000 of 70-year-old Moyross woman, Teresa Gribbins who was resident at the Sancta Maria Nursing home.Detective Garda Stephen Ryan, Shannon, said that Harrington befriended the woman who was resident in the home after her husband died, and she moved from her former Moyross residence. Print WhatsApp Linkedin Previous articleMafi faced with seven week banNext articleFound guilty of thefts at fishmongers adminlast_img read more

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The Essence Of ‘Civil Litigation’

first_imgKnow the LawThe Essence Of ‘Civil Litigation’ Meghna Nimbekar30 Oct 2020 12:31 AMShare This – xThe terms ‘Civil Lawyering’ or ‘Civil Litigation’ are more often than not, eclipsed by our monstrous Criminal Justice System, and the Trial. The ever fascinating and ever encompassing Law of Crimes, titillates almost everyone’s minds alike (whether a layman, a student of Law, or a Lawyer!). The reality comes to such a point that our Civil Laws are viewed just as a matter of routine,…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe terms ‘Civil Lawyering’ or ‘Civil Litigation’ are more often than not, eclipsed by our monstrous Criminal Justice System, and the Trial. The ever fascinating and ever encompassing Law of Crimes, titillates almost everyone’s minds alike (whether a layman, a student of Law, or a Lawyer!). The reality comes to such a point that our Civil Laws are viewed just as a matter of routine, thus, one avoids or runs away to understand the very essence of the civil side of the Law, or the ambits of Civil Lawyering. This Article is an attempt to help us put on our thinking hats, and it also highlights the importance of understanding and appreciating the essence of this forgotten branch of the Law (for its importance can never be emphasized enough!). Let us begin at the beginnings by tracing out the roots of the Civil Law. Essentially, legal systems throughout the world are divided into – the Common Law System and the Civil Law System. Although the two may appear to be the same, there is a fine line of a difference between the two. It would not be an exaggeration to say, that the Civil Law System is anchored deep – as it has set principles to follow, and a tool (called discretion) is provided to the Judges, so that the arbitrariness or the lacunae in the Legislation is put a check on-to! Unlike the Common Law System, which saw the light of the day due to the efforts of William the Conqueror, the Civil Law finds its roots in the Roman law, wherein legal codes were used to monitor the process and administration of justice. However, our Code (‘the Civil Procedure Code, 1908’) is slowly assuming the title of being cumbersome, and this should be the last thing that we, as the guardians of the Law, must want to be happening! SCOPE OF THE CIVIL LAW So, how do we set the civil law in motion; who may come forward and set it in motion; and for what? (You may straight-away relate the said questions to the Criminal Law. In fact, many of you must already have answers to these, vis-à-vis the Criminal Law.) For the purpose of our piece, let us try to answer the above questions one by one. Your right to avail your remedy under the Civil Law stems from something called a ‘Cause of Action’ (hereafter as “the COA”); which in simple words, is a violation of the existence of a legally vested right with respect to one’s immovable property, movable property, and reputation, among others. Further, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (hereafter as “the Code”) provides that a remedy can be invoked by a person who is himself affected, or by someone who is authorized on his behalf (as in the case of a Power of Attorney), or even a guardian (in case of suits for/against minors, or persons of unsound mind). A class action suit may also be brought under various provisions of the Law (for instance, the Consumer Protection Act, 1986; and the Companies Act, 1956 – to name a few!) And, to put to rest our third question, lets import the meaning and essence of Section 9 of the Code – the suits of civil nature are thus, those suits, the cognizance of which is not expressly barred by the Code. In other words, a matter in which one’s right to property or to an office is contested, is a civil suit (irrespective of the fact whether the ultimate decision relates to religious rites or ceremonies, or whether a fee is attached to this ‘office’ or not). Thus, for the violation of your rights (as already briefed-out), you may go ahead and institute a civil suit. THE STAGES Broadly, a civil suit passes through the following five stages: Institution of a Civil Suit (Plaint, Written Statement, Replication, etc.)Framing of IssuesSummoning and attendance of witnessesHearing of Suit and Examination of WitnessDecree/Order and the Judgment Below is an overview of the stages involved in a civil suit; it is not exhaustive. Institution of a Suit (Section 26; Orders VI, VII and VIII of the Code) A suit is instituted by the presentation of a Plaint; it shall contain material facts only, and these facts must be proved by way of an Affidavit. Simply put, a Plaint is a written statement of allegations against a defendant(s). In reply to these allegations, the Defendant is given an opportunity to file a Written Statement (W.S.) within 30 days, failing which the Court has discretion to allow time to file the same (which must not be later than 90 days from the date of service of summons to the Defendant). (Note: A Plaint has to have a set of particulars (specified under Order VII Rule 1), failing which the Plaint may be rejected under Order VII Rule 11.) In case an additional plea is taken by the Defendant, the Plaintiff may ask the Court and file a Replication/Rejoinder; no additional issues may be raised by the Plaintiff at this stage. However, the words ‘Replication/Rejoinder’ do not find a mention in the Code. Order VIII Rule 9 uses the phrase ‘Subsequent Pleadings’; the Rajasthan High Court in Gurjant Singh v. Krishan Chander and Others, has held that a Replication/Rejoinder falls within the ambit of Order VIII Rule 9. Framing of Issues (Order XIV of the Code) This is the most important stage because not only the evidence, but also the Trial, and the Judgment, is based upon these issues. An issue arises when one party alleges one thing, and the other denies the same. It is to note that an issue may be of a fact, or of law. The Lawyers are to assist the Court in framing the issues. But sometimes, it so happens that we provide a set of omnibus issues to the Court – which is against Order XIV Rule 1(3) of the Code – essentially, distinct issues have to be framed. Summoning and attendance of witnesses (Order XVI of the Code) Within 15 days of the settlement of issues, the parties are to present a list of witnesses whom ‘they propose to call either to give evidence or to produce documents’. The idea is to collect evidence – oral/documentary. Any party who desires a witness to appear in Court for the aforementioned purpose, is to obtain summons from the Court, after paying the expenses to the Court (to tender the same to the witness later), or directly to the witness (when summons directly served by the party). Failure by the witness to comply with the summons shall be dealt with by the Court under Rules 10 and 12 of Order XVI. A question may arise as to whether Court can summon a stranger to be a witness – the answer is yes, and a further explanation lies under Rule 14 of Order XVI. Rule 19 is of utmost importance, as it states that personal attendance of a witness is not necessary unless he is residing within certain limits. Hearing of Suit and Examination of Witness (Order XVIII of the Code) Generally, the ‘plaintiff has the right to begin’ unless facts are admitted by the defendant and he contends (based on additional facts) that the plaintiff has no right to seek any relief. Thereafter, the party beginning her case shall state her case and produce her evidence. (It is reiterated that evidence is sought only on the issues framed.) Likewise, the other party too states her case and produces her evidence, and may ‘address the Court generally on the whole case’. The hearing continues, keeping in mind one’s right to either produce evidence (immediately) on issues to be proved by the other side, or the right to reserve the same. But one has to remember that ‘no amount of proof can substitute pleadings’. Similar rule is applied to a cross-examination as well wherein ‘a party cannot suggest a case to a witness which is not pleaded by her’. Lastly, as for the documents filed and relied upon by the parties, the proof and admissibility of the same is subject to the orders of the Court. (The admissibility and proof of documents would take us to another discussion – but for this piece, only so much should do.) Decree and the Judgment (Sections 2(2) & 2(9) of the Code; Order XX of the Code) Sub-section 9 of Section 2 of the Code defines a judgment as “a statement given by the Judge on the grounds of decree or order.” After the hearing, judgment is pronounced (at once, or within 30/60 days) in an open Court. Pronouncing the judgment does not mean that the entire judgment would be read out – it is sufficient if the Court reads out the findings on each issue and the final Order. The Judge has a right to pronounce the judgment written by his predecessor. It is also important that the Judge signs the judgment and puts a date on the same. Rule 6 of Order XX stipulates, among other things, that a decree shall agree with the judgment. A certified copy of the judgment and the decree shall be furnished to the parties (on their application) at their expense. (Note: Only half the battle is won when the litigant obtains a Decree/Order in his favour. The real deal is to execute the same – Sections 36 to 74; Order XXI. Hoping to discuss the mentioned provisions in detail sometime later!) So what is the essence of Civil Lawyering? Do we need to be extraordinary to be able to make an indelible impression in the legal sphere, or do we have to keep ourselves distracted with mere tips and tricks of litigation, even when there is so much to know and learn (given that the article itself provides only a gist of how a civil proceeding looks like)? Well, what is essentially required is – understanding the basics and being super clear with one’s concepts. The rest, coupled with one’s hard-work, follows de-facto. Happy Litigating!Views are personal.(Author is a practising Lawyer at Delhi)Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

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